AT WORK :
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT DF THE INTERIOR
OFFICE ..OF INflJAN AFFAIRS • » WASHINGTON, D.C.
IOJANS AT J|CB|
CONTENTS OF THE ISSUE OF AUGUST 1938
Volume V Number 12
Editorial John Collier 1
Indians Employed In The Indian Service Georges M. Weber 5
New Navajo-Hopi Medical Center At Fort Defiance 6
Cover Design 7
Dr. Edgar A. Farrow, Paiute Superintendent,
Governor Of Acoma Pueblo In New Mexico Breaks
All Pottery That Is Not » Genuine" S
Pima High School Graduates First Class A. E. Robinson 9
Cooperation Between CCC-ID And Local Residents .. Claude C. Cornwall 10
Idaho Indians Employed In Filming Of
"Northwest Passage" 10
Fir st-Aid Instruction Saves A Life Harold L. Turner 11
George G. Wren , Land Field Agent , Dies 11
Indian Emergency Conservation Work Passes
Fifth Birthday 13
Trading Post To Be Opened At Lake Tahoe , Nevada 13
The Case Of Maria Franci sco 19
Indian Girl To Attend International Girl Scouts
Meeting In Switzerland 21
The Chilocco Homesteaders After Three Tears Andrew Vander Plaats . ... 22
"Sequoyah," By Grant Foreman, Issued By
University Of Oklahoma Press 24
New Book Issued On Cherokee History 24
The American Indian Sign Language John P. Harrington 25
Lac Du Flambeau Chippewas Build Summer Colony - 30
Recent Changes Of Assignment 30
Bills Affecting Indian Affairs Enacted During The
Third Session, 75th Congress 31
CCC-ID Work At Siletz Reservation, Washington ... Leo F. Walker 34
Washington Office Visitors 35
Kiowa Agency CCC-ID Enrollees Profit By Varied
Vocational Program Donald B. Jones 36
Salt Long A Commodity Among Indians 36
The Reorganization Of Farm Management In Kansas . P. Everett Sperry 37
Department Of Agriculture Issues Handbook On
Terracing 3 ^
The Cherokees Before Removal Jonn p ■ Brown 40
Suggested Book List For Indian Schools 42
From CCC-ID Reports 43
ms wzmw - ? m
A Ne|fs Sla^fyfor Indians.
VOLUME V - AUGUST H38 - NUMBER 12
AN IMPRESSION IEOMTHE INDIANS OF GUATEMALA
I wish that I could share with fellow-workers, Indian and
white, certain impressions from the highlands (not the tropics or
the coffee country) of Guatemala. The population there is more than
80 per cent Indian. To communicate, with accuracy, an "impression",
is not easy, but I try.
One impression: a million of full-blooded Indians whose
economy is so nearly self-contained that if the whole world, beyond
those mountainy highlands, were blotted out by a catastrophe, only
negligible changes would ensue for the Indians. Infrequent automo-
biles on climbing and plunging roads would no longer disturb men,
women, children, pigs, dogs, chickens, goats, occasional mules and
burros, as by tens of thousands, and never loitering, but of tener at
a dog- trot, they continue their market-journeys, uninterrv^ted for a
thousand years.* And roads would wash and cave away: for no longer
would a socially remote power require $2.50 a year of road tax from
* We passed hundreds of women, all in their colored home-woven
and home-embroidered textiles. Figures slim and perfectly poised
- balancing their round trays loaded with produce for the market
twelve miles away - necks arched, eyes forward, arms relaxed at
the side, with a gliding motion and bending knees, and seldom a
pause. Chatting and laughing with those on the road or by their
sides as they trotted along. Again, at a dog-trot, the return
after the sales at the market - another twelve miles or more.
each Indian, and in default of it, two weeks' work on roads. The
modern world's technology would vanish: it would make little differ-
ence, if the lapsed copper-technology could be retrieved. Modern
medicine would vanish: it would make almost no difference. Alcohol,
the curse, would be wanting. Food, clothing, housing, transport,
methods of agriculture, of manufacture, production for market, recre-
ation, would be unaffected, except for a few details. Manual crafts
would diversify and perhaps would effloresce, silently, from a hun-
dred f olk-center6 . "Standard of living" would go upward, with the
disappearance of alcohol.
But self-contained economy is only the beginning of the
impression. Here feeds itself, from ever-living roots deep in the
earth's soil and in the heart, a culture - a society - uninterrupted
not for a thousand but for two thousand years, or longer than. that.
The ancient Mayan systems built themselves, incredibly flowered in
blood, in gold, in music, in stone made as soft and as rich as human
lineaments or trees: flowered, and melted away, founded upon this
sub -structure society, and left this society unchanged. European
invaders came and methodically annihilated the men, the classes of
men, the records, even, of the Mayan super-structure, so plunging
into everlasting night one of the world's "great ages." Oblivion
fell on the memories of the Indians, but it was only an oblivion to-
ward something that always had been remote; and their basic society
silently lived on, and unchanged came through the four hundred years
of Latin or Ladino (Mixed-blood, European! zed) vicissitude and op-
pression. And now, with the crunching and thundering of the tech-
nological age so close, and even geographically interpenetrating,
e money-economy in the Ladino towns dotted through the highlands,
and a Ladino government preoccupied with an export trade which holds
the currency at par, still that most ancient of the pasts lives on.
It is not a sentimentally cultivated past, nor even known by the In-
dians as a past; it is a toiling and pulsing, a fear-freighted and
joyr-freighted present and future to them.
And not something to climb out of, to escape. Sophisticated
are the Indians' textiles (sophisticated from of old), which by con-
scious purposefulness concede nothing to the great world's market;
and sophisticated is their social choice: they want, with a con-
scious determination practically universal, to be, to think, to feel,
to act, to have and to forego, as what they are . The choice is all-
inclusive and reaches to the (to us, outsiders) obviously good and
the (to us, outsiders) obviously not-good parts (though, actually,
are there any detachable parts?), anciently tried and proved, inter-
weaved and fused: implicit institutions, invisible^ government, be-
liefs, curing systems, family complexes, village identities, tech-
nologies or refusals of technologies, sorrows and compensations and
As for understanding, approbation, assistance, honor from
the near or far alien, ruling world: these they have never had, do
not count upon or expect, even do not want.* In this not-wanting
from the alien world, possibly a profound instinct toward life, made
cautious through the bitter denials of milleniums, is as controlling
an element as is the conscious, sophisticated choice: who can tell:
what is sure, is that these Indians for twenty centuries have been
ruled over by masters, of their own or distant bloods, indifferent
at best, scornful and hating at worst, and have held fast to their
uncommunicated own, and go on holding fast, and perhaps will go on
beyond our age and beyond all its blind titans of ruling ideas and
of inventions and instruments and plunging social change.
Hungered and filled with pain, severe, filled with not-
having, filled with denial, is their life: so to us it looks, how
does it look to them? But what about that effort, from age to age
renewed, of our own spirit in the stream of White history, while
conquest of earth has progressed, pride of rule has increased, and
securities, comforts, easily-had pleasures have multiplied, to hurl
itself out from all these gains in order to have life and not lose
it? The thought would lead too far, is not worth pursuing in this
context. But I remember a priest in this Guatemala highland - he
is over seventy years old, and very frail now - whose congregation
is nearly eighty thousand Indians: his church, upon whose steps,
within a little altar, "pagan" fires burn and die and are lit again
day and night: the undecorated interior of his church, narrow, and
reaching far into dimness, and the long pathway of ever-renewed odor-
ous rose petals there, the candles among the rose petals, the gum-
incense clouding the air, the swaying, kneeling Indians, and how
these worshippers were not married in or by the church or state but
"beautifully and well", as the priest tells it, in their grass-
thatched adobe homes where no roads lead, out in the rain-darkened
mountains.** "They are good, they are kind, they are themselves,
they have their power, they have their happiness." And to illuminate
his thought, the priest in rolling German quotes Goethe, the master:
"Cloudy, gray, uncertain are all systems (of ideas or of society) -
cloudy, chill, and failing us; but green is life." So the priest
meets suggestions about changing - improving - the Indians of Guate-
President Ubico tekes the Indians' part. This now anc\ ^ hang ar)
position of Government may have far-reaching results if it be con-
tinued and expanded. As yet, it can not have affected the social-
mental structures so old and so functional and deeply integrated.
** The Indians resist the civil marriage ceremony, and in default
of the civil ceremony, the church ceremony is forbidden by law.
Then, a diary entry, from the plaza of this same pre-Colum-
"Our party had returned from a market town 60 kilometers
from here. A very steep road, over many ranges, from 5,000 to 11,000
"Up the steep street here, at five o'clock today, while
the rain fell, came an Indian. He was about five feet, three inches
tall. He was carrying pottery - a very fragile pottery, for Indian
use alone, packed with extreme care. His rain-mat of split bamboo
covered him and his big burden. We stopped him. Sweat was pouring
in heavy drops - in streams - from his face, though it was cold in
"His burden was somewhat over 100 pounds.
"Very slowly, leaning on a pointed staff, he lowered his
burden. We had priced identical pottery in the market, and we
figured that all he was carrying would bring between ninety cents
and a dollar if all the pieces were sold.
"A part of his burden was tortillas - his only food ex-
cept coffee and a tiny coffee pot, a tin cup, a tiny wick lamp, and
a small bottle of kerosene.
"He had left his home town (the very place we had just
returned from) at midnight the night before; had walked or run the
60 kilometers, without resting; and was going on to his destination,
45 kilometers from here, before he stopped. Tomorrow was market day
at his destination. Thereafter, with a changed but probably not
lightened burden, he would journey, non-stop, back to his home, and
help get ready the pottery for the next market.
"Very sweet was the gathering of other Indians around him
(talking together not in Spanish), who helped him ease and again
lift his burden. And sweet, his 'God love you', when he received
a whole dollar for ten of the glistering platters of 2 feet diameter.
(We probably will smash them all, getting them home. ) Into the twi-
light he went his way, and the rain fell on and on. One of the tens
- no, the hundreds - of thousands of Indians, on Guatemala's roads
Commissioner of Indian Affairs
INDIANS EMPLOYED IN THE INDIAN SERVICE
By Georges M. Weber, Statistician
Is the Indian Service utilizing the training and talents
available among Indians? The results of a recent survey certainly
point in this direction.
Heretofore, the data on the participation of Indians in
the work of the Indian Service have been too incomplete to warrant
definite statements on the employment of Indians in this Service.
For this reason, a questionnaire was recently sent to all jurisdic-
The results of this survey indicate that on April 1, 1933,
3,916 Indians were employed, of whom 3,627 were regular employees
and 289 were emergency workers employed for six months or more.* In
other words, approximately one-half of the regular employees in the
Indian Service are Indians.
One of the most striking revelations of this survey is the
large number of full-bloods: 41.7 per cent. An additional 30.8 per
cent are half-blood or over, and 21.8 per cent are quarter-blood or
over. That is, of the total permanent Indian employees of the In-
dian Service, 72.5 per cent are half-blood or over and 94.3 per cent
are quarter-blood or over.
The agencies where large numbers of full-blood Indians are
employed are, as would be expected, those in full-blood areas: Nav-
ajo and United Pueblos.
Sixty-five per cent of the total permanent Indian employ-
ees are men; 35 per cent are women.
It has been said by some commentators on Indian affairs
that while undoubtedly employment of Indians in the Indian Service
has increased in recent years, most Indian employees were in the low-
est salary ranges. The actual facts are these: 31.7 per cent of
the permanently employed Indians receive salaries of from $600 to
$1,079 per year; 33.2 per cent receive salaries in the range from
$1,080 to $1,439; and 26.3 per cent are in the salary group of
$1,440 to $1,999 per year. Approximately 4 per cent receive $2,000
As this material is analysed further, additional and more
detailed data will be available. The figures now on hand are con-
crete evidence that Indians are sharing increasingly in the work of
the Indian Service - in numbers, in pay, and in responsibility.
* This second group includes, for example, most CuC-ID foremen, but
not CCC-ID enrollees. or other short term workers paid out of emer-
gency funds. The total of all Indian workers including those of
this latter category was 8,866 on April 1, 1938.
NEW NAVAJO-HOFI MEDICAL CENTER
AT FORT DEFIANCE . ARIZONA, DEDICATED
Aopendectomy Operation At The New Fort Defiance Hospital
Dr. Paul C. F. Vietzke Operating, Assisted By
Dr. Raymond Mundt And Dr. Archie Sheinmel.*
The dedication of the new Navajo 140-bed hospital at Fort
Defiance, Arizona, on June 20, was participated in not only by ad-
ministrative and medical staff members and by several distinguished
visitors, but by a number of Navajos themselves, including outstand-
ing medicine men of the tribe.
Nearly a thousand Navajos attended the ceremony of presen-
Speakers at the ceremony included Dr. James G. Townsend,
Director of the Indian Service's health work, Dr. W. W. Peter, and
the Navajo Superintendent E. R. Fryer. Henry Taliman and Tom Dodge,
♦Photograph by Milton Snow.
Navajos, spoke on behalf of the tribe. Among the distinguished
gist, of ST7 L'Ouis '/"I»%"' Wililam""Haggart, surgeon 'o'rTJenvef"T"and
the Indian Service's own district medical director, Dr. Estella
Ford ^ffi&UXPMtSihHS*® ^oFJgfleP^fe *&!#?? £j#ication,
and othf l p,|r^m,^he^ue^o ffiBa* iainqffB ,«mtfl .A tasba . iQ .rttno*
A colorful feature of the dedication was* (he recitation
big enough |9 r ,4gn^ q % j .n|w Iftft^u^pn^Sacjed P^l^w,^ vislu
ba& Sa&bneictliQqissi sjmsos-ci' 3s£al eH .sixtiolilsO ,Il3wbi2 Jic^ ^s
medicine e me 5 ^^Je^vrffgj £f e^djjojfce^p ^^^t^^h^^.fct -revo
bui M»e, tyaW&t%iilB§Vm& e b§M&6SH&^)l&&B flHF e ri5PSwP*Wi* '"vSS^A
the £B$ e S^&WSai-.9£blk&w^§^^^^^
-j$t? rtsifenl ow.-t baa snoi steVseBSi td^le ot cru ^flfrfiafloqaa*
£.KBKJ-orii A ^^ er ">'*^ e dedication ceremonies, a, two-day series of
clinics was held for physicians in the Navajo Aree . The latest
techniques in the treatment of trachoma were included in the demon-
The old Fort Defiance General Hospital will become a
sanatorium for the treatment 1 of tuberculosis cases, with a capacity
of about one hundred patients * ^^ wi-li'bei ready in about six weeks .
Following the dedication ceremonies, a barbecue was held
at noon, followed by an Indian rodeo and field events and by a
squaw dance in the evening.
The new hospital was built upon almost the exact location
from which Kit Carson, famous Indian fighter, launched his .military
campaign in 1864 against the Navajos.
Every bed in the new hospital was filled before the formal
opening; in fact, on the day of the dedication it was filled to more
than its regular capacity. As evidence that the Navajos are any-
thing but a dying race, seven fine Navajo babies were born within
30 hour 8 a few days before the opening.
The picture on the cover of this issue of "Indians At
Work" shows a group of CCC-ID workers pouring the concrete founda-
tion for a stock water i;ank on the Papago Reservation in Arizona-
DR. BDCAR A. FARROW . PAIUTE SUPERINTENDENT . RETIRES
The Indian Service has lost, by retirement, this past
month, Dr. Edgar A. Farrow, superintendent and physiolan at the
Paiute Agency in Utah.
Dr. Farrow has had a long cexeer in the government serv-
ice, which he entered in 1903. He served in the Philippine Constab-
ulary from 1903 to 1914, and during the latter part of his service
was assistant superintendent of its medical division with the rank
of major. He transferred to the Indian Servioe in 1915 as physician
at Fort Bldwell, California. He later became superintendent and
physician at the Kaibab Indian Agency in Arizona, which later took
over the Goshute Agency in Utah, and, in 1927, the Moapa River
Agency, after which the agency was renamed the Paiute Agency, with
headquarters at Cedar City, Utah. This consolidation brought the
agency responsibility up to eight reservations and two Indian set-
tlements, in three states, whose circuit requires over two thousand
miles of travel.
Dr. Farrow's work in range management and the upbuilding
of livestock has been outstanding. He was a pioneer in the conserva-
tion movement in the Indian Service and the results of his twenty-
year effort in controlled grazing are now apparent in the fine con-
dition of a once-denuded range.
GOVERNOR OF ACOMA PUEBLO IN NEW MEXICO BREAK S ALL
POITJRY THAT IS NOT ."GENUINE"
Enforcing strict compliance with the traditional Acotna
manner of making pottery, the governor of the sky-high Indian pueblo,
Syme Sanchez, is breaking every piece that is not "genuine", Dr. Sophie
Aberle, Superintendent of the United Pueblos Agency,, has been informed.
The governor and his staff are visiting all points where
Acoraas have pottery for sale and examine every piece. Any pieces
that ar& chipped or on which the work has been slighted, are smashed.
The effort of the governor to guarantee real Acoma pottery
to customers is the same, in a smaller way, as the work of the Indian
Arts and Crafts Board which puts a mark on genuine Indian goods.
Reprinted from " Albuquerque Journal " - Albuquerque, New
Mexico - June 4, 1938.
PIMA HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES FIRST CLASS
By A. B. Robinson, Superintendent, Pima Agency, Arizona.
Pima Central High School graduated in June its first class
of nine boys and one girl. The event is memorable not only because
it was our first class, but because, so far as I can learn, it is
the first group of Indian high school students who have graduated
from a reservation school under the day school plan- The boys and
girls have lived at home with their parents during their entire
course. I feel that the results of this combination of home and
school training are all that we have hoped for. These students are
self-reliant and capable, in close touch with their homes, and yet
trained in the social ways and educational background of white young
Governor R. C. Stanford, who has known many of our older
Indians personally, addressed the students at their graduating
The 1938 Nurse Aid Class At Kiowa Indian Hospital, Anadarko, Oklahoma
COOPERATION BETWEEN CCC-ID AND LOCAL RESIDENTS RESULTS
IN HIGHWAY FIRST-AID STATION NEAR PIMA AGENCY . ARIZONA
By Claude C. Cornwall, Camp Supervisor, CCC-ID
♦• K^W* *
where Highway Number
79, which is the
artery between Phoe-
nix and Tucson, Ari-
zona, goes over the
Sacaton Bridge across
the Gila River is a
dangerous corner . The
little Indian Service
community at Oldberg
is the only inhabited
spot in this area-
Upon invitation of Superintendent A. E. Robinson of the Pima
Agency and CCC-ID Project Manager Clyde H. Packer, the proprietor of
the Oldberg Trading Post, Gladys M. Ellis and J. G. Woody, Oldberg
resident, volunteered to attend the CCC-ID first-aid classes. The
result is that a highway first-aid station has been established at
Oldberg, with trained attendants and a supply of first-aid materials
at hand, furnished by the newly organized Sacaton branch of the Amer-
ican Red Cross.
The value of such a station is twofold - not only as a
place of help in time of need; but as a reminder to all who pass,
including the local Pima Indians, to drive with care.
IDAHO INDIANS EMPLOYED IN FILMING OF "NORTHWEST PASSAGE"
Some 200 Indians from Nez Perce, Coeur d'Alene, and Fort
Hall were recently employed at McCall, Idaho in the filming by Metro-
Goldwyn-Mayer of Kenneth Roberts' novel of pioneer days, "Northwest
Passage." Superintendent A. G. Wilson reports that the Indians were
well paid and fed. Most of them took their teepees with them to the
motion picture locale.
FIRST-AID INSTRUCTION SAVES A LIFE
By Harold L . Turner, Clerk, CCC-ID
Consolidated Ute Agency, Colorado
A recent accident here, with a fortunate outcome, has
proved the value of first-aid training at the Consolidated Ute Agency.
One Sunday morning in June, on a farm north of Towaoc,
Mary Pie, the seven-year-old daughter of Henry Pie, a former Indian
CCC-ID enrollee, was playing out in the sagebrush. While trying to
catch a young rabbit, she put her hand into a clump of brush and was
bitten by a diamond-back rattlesnake.
With the child's first scream, her father ran toward her.
He immediately realized her plight, gathered his thoughts together,
and applied the first-aid technique he had learned in his CCC train-
ing. First he produced quick bleeding by cutting slits in the two
fingers where the poisonous reptile had inserted his fangs; second,
he induced suction; then he used pieces of cloth for tourniquets
which he promptly applied to keep the poison from spreading through-
out the blood stream.
Henry then brought his small daughter to the Ute Mountain
Hospital at Towaoc. Antivenom shots were administered and the child
was kept in bed for a few days . The treatment was successful and
the little girl is now at home entirely recovered.
Dr. James H. Mitchell, Physician-In-Charge, said that had
it not been for Henry's prompt action and presence of mind in giv-
ing first-aid, his daughter would undoubtedly have died.
GEORGE G. WREN, LAND FIELD AGENT . DIES
Mr. George G. Wren, Land Field Agent at Muskogee, Oklahoma,
died suddenly on July 13, after a few days' illness. Mr. Wren had
been employed since 1934 in land acquisition work and since 1937 had
been in charge of the field work for the land-buying program for
Oklahoma and Kansas under the Indian Reorganization Act and the Okla-
homa Welfare Act. He had demonstrated outstanding ability in his
INDIAN EMERGENCY CONSERVATION WORK PASSES FIFTH BIRTHDAY
Last April the fifth anniversary of the Civilian Conserva-
tion Corps was celebrated. Emergency Conservation Work for Indians,
however, did not begin until June 1933. "Indians At Work", which
began as an I.E.C.W. magazine, was founded the following August;
consequently this issue marks its fifth birthday. We present a
series of CCC-ID pictures taken at various times during the past
five years, as an anniversary feature.
Most photographs of Indians in E.C.W. activities have
shown Indians at their jobs - building dams and charcos, cutting
truck trails, building fences and otherwise working to protect and
develop reservation resources.
However, Indians, like other people, do not work twenty-
four hours a day. The pictures on the opposite page and on the
pages following show something of what goes on at Indian CCC proj-
ects outside of working hours.
TRADING POST TO BE OPENED AT LAKE TAHOE IN NEVADA
A trading post at which Indian arts and crafts will be
sold throughout the tourist season will be established within a
short time at Bijou, Lake Tahoe, by the Indian Service. It will
be a branch post of the main trading post at Carson City which is
conducted by the Indians of the Stewart Indian School.
The Lake Tahoe Post will be built upon land recently
leased for that purpose by the government. Reprinted from the
Reno Evening Gazette , June 8, 1938 .
HL j 1
THE CASS OF MARIA FRANCISCO*
By An Indian Service Community Worker
An ever-recurring problem for Indian Service workers and
for tribal social welfare and relief committees is that of relief.
It is one which requires careful and thoughtful analysis: who is
eligible for relief; how to make a given fund go as far as possible;
how best to work with state and county officials; what the effect
of relief will be on a community or on a family; how to make relief
mean to its recipients not merely something to buy food with, but
the chance for family rehabilitation. These are problems which
touch the jobs of many Indian Service workers, particularly social
and community workers, of whom the Indian Service has 23.
The case described below describes one type of Indian
family applying for aid for dependent children. It is the kind of
family whose members will make good use of assistance and who, at
the same time, will continue to do all they can for themselves.
Maria Francisco, Indian, age 35, lives at Blanco Village
on a reservation in the Southwest, some 48 miles northwest of the
agency. Her tiny village is reached by driving first to the day
school serving the area, then by following a winding, dusty school
bus route for four miles.
Maria owns her own group of ocatillo and adobe buildings
which consists of one church, one kitchen and three bedrooms. These
buildings were put up some 18 or 19 years ago, and, considering
their age, appear to be fairly substantial. The floors are of dirt,
packed through wear to a hard finish. Light and air enter the
buildings through one door opening, since windows are still a luxury
in Blanco. Fireplaces give warmth during the brisk months of the
winter season. Furnishings are partly homemade. Beds are entirely
lacking in the Francisco home: all immediate members of the family-
sleep side by side on the ground beside the open fire. Bed clothing
is scarce. Kerosene lamps and the friendly flames from the fireplace
provide light at night. Water is hauled in barrels for a distance
of four milea.
'All names in this article, including those of villages, are fic-
titious. The case, however, is a real one.
Maria's husband was killed in an accident in 1930 on the
main highway, leaving Maria as the head of the family which in-
cludes not only her own children, but her energetic grandmother,
a sister, a brother, a nephew and for the present at least, two
nieces. They are: Johnny, son, age 16. Johnny endeavors to care
for the family's nine cows. Isabel, daughter, 15, who attends the
day school. Clara, daughter, 14, also at the day school. Juan,
son, 10, also at the day school. These children ride the Govern-
ment bus to the school four miles away daily. Other members of
the family include: Rosa Garcia, 85, mother; Nina Garcia, 50,
widowed sister; Miguel Garcia, 65, brother (widower); Richard Gar-
cia, 15, nephew. At the moment the following nieces are staying
in the household: Mary Rodriguez, age 8 (her mother died in 1937);
and Anne Rodriguez, age 6 (mother dead).
Also living in the same group of buildings and sharing
good times and poverty alike are Paul Ortiz and his wife Anna,
with their two children Pedro and Lucia, aged five and three. Paul
seems to have a serious eye infection.
Maria speaks no English. She is most anxious to have
her children learn it, however, and she makes every effort to send
her children to the government school regularly. The children are
receiving medical attention at school which the doctor visits once
a week. A field nurse lives at Santa Caterina and visits Blanco
Village as a part of her area. The children get weekly baths at
school and a hot noon lunch. The two girls are taking home econ- -
omics work and are learning to make their own clothing.
Maria has never received government rations of any kind.
By washing clothes and cleaning at Santa Caterina, she has been
given small quantities of food and clothing for her family in re-
turn. Basket-making in the late winter months and cotton-picking
during the season have been her only sources of cash during the
last two years.
Maria was born at Blanco, where she now lives. Since
her nine cows are unable to find sufficient forage and water in
the village, Maria lets them graze at Henovari, her summer home.
(Nearly all of this tribe have two homes - for winter and summer.)
Here she goes every season to gather the sahuaro fruit and to be
nearer a water supply. Maria's life has been spent almost entirely
in these two villages, with the exception of cotton seasons when
her husband moved to be near the cotton fields.
In 1934 and 1935 Maria was employed at the Santa Cater-
ina School to help in laundry and kitchen work. She received food,
clothing and a small check for her services. After the school was
discontinued as a semi -boarding school, her services in this capac-
ity were no longer needed; consequently cotton-picking and basket-
making, as related above, have been her only means of securing
cash since that time. There is at present, no definite income in
the Francisco household. If the desert beans are plentiful, Maria's
family is sure of beans for the winter months . If the beans are
scarce, Maria must swap baskets with neighbors for the necessary
Maria is a robust, healthy individual, pleasant to know,
friendly and cooperative to deal with. All her children seem to
be strong and well, although they vary in weight and build.
In spite of their somewhat precarious existence, this
family maintains an alert and happy outlook. People like these
make good use of whatever help can be given them.
INDIAN GIRL TO ATTEND INTERNATIONAL
GIRL SCOUTS MEETING IN SWITZERLAND
Mayme Thompson, sev-
Cherokee, and student at the
Sequoyah Indian School at Tahl-
equah, Oklahoma, will represent
Oklahoma, Texas, Arizona and
New Mexico at the internation-
al encampment of Girl Scouts
to be held at Adelboden, Swit-
zerland, August 11 to 29. The
choice was made by a committee
within the Girl Scouts' organ-
THE CHILOCCO HOMESTEADERS AFTER THREE YEARS
By Andrew Vander Plaats, Instructor of Agriculture,
Kiowa Agency, Oklahoma. (Formerly at Chilocco School In Oklahoma)
Building A Feed Hack
The Buzzards ' Corn
What has happened to the Chilocco subsistence homestead
project in Chilocco, Oklahoma, launched in 1935? The homesteaders
have been on the ground for almost three years now, and the com-
munity is a "going" concern.
The project was started through arrangements between the
Indian Service and the Subsistence Homesteads Division of the De-
partment of the Interior. Some 3,000 acres of good farm land, a
part of the 8,588-acre reserve of the Chilocco Indian Agricultur-
al School, were set aside and divided into farms of about 160 acres
each, with a common pasture of about 600 acres. Houses and farm
buildings for fifteen homesteaders were erected. The houses are
simple and well-built, without electric wiring and plumbing, but
with a convenient water supply for each family.
The fifteen homesteaders were carefully picked from among
former Chilocco students. All had had agricultural training while
at Chilocco; all had done some farming after graduation; and all
were in need of help. They were all young men, most of them married
and with children. Various Oklahoma tribes were represented, par-
ticularly the Five Civilized Tribes, from which Chilocco draws a
number of its students.
Each homesteader has five acres set apart for buildings
and a garden. In the homestead agreement, each individual has con-
tracted to make payment over a thirty-year period for the buildings,
equipment and livestock furnished him. In addition to this five
acres, each homesteader leases approximately 155 acres of land on
a five-year revocable permit which, under its terms, calls for care-
ful planting methods, crop rotation and scrupulous care of the live-
The group is largely self-governing. Employees of the
school have been glad, however, to lend assistance and advice in
specific problems; for example, the poultryman at the school has
been able to help the homesteaders with their chickens and the home
economics teacher has helped the women of the community in their
canning problems. All the men are members of the Chilocco Home-
stead Cooperative Association, of which Fred North is president.
Through this organization they buy household supplies and other
items of equipment. At their semi-monthly meetings members discuss
common problems: recent discussions, for example, have centered
around the planting of barley as a substitute for corn, needed for
their hogs, but not always a sure crop in Oklahoma; and around
problems which call for united action as, for instance, the vac-
cination of stock.
Each family is working out its problems to meet its in-
dividual requirements. The Elmer Buzzard family of six, for ex-
ample, grew 608 bushels of wheat on 50 acres of upland soil and
1,250 bushels of oats on 33 acres. Elmer Buzzard is proud of his
yellow and white corn and he has carefully selected the best ears
as seed for this year's crop. Four splendid shorthorn heifers sup-
ply his family with milk and bring in a small cash income. A fine-
looking flock of Rhode Island reds also supplements the farm in-
Albert Conrad, on the other hand, changed from chickens
to the growing of turkeys; so far, with success. This family grows
wheat also and sells the milk produced by five cows.
Women at Chilocco are sharing not only in farm work but
in civic responsibilities as well. Mrs. Charles Gray's exhibits
of her canned fruits and vegetables at the Kay County Fair have
Some Of The
McGirts 1 Cattle
Fall Plowing On
The Conrad Homestead
brought her several prizes. Mrs. Fred North, in addition to manag-
ing her household, has found time to he the president of the parent-
The purpose of the Chilocco venture - to give a number of
promising young people a start, and to enable them to develop into
capable farmers and community leaders - is evidently being realized.
" SEQUOYAH ." BY GRANT FOREMAN, ISSUED BY UNIVERSITY CF OKLAHOMA PRESS
The sixteenth book in the "Civilization of the American
Indian" series issued by the University of Oklahoma Press at Norman,
Oklahoma, appears with Grant Foreman's new book, Sequoyah .
In Sequoyah is 'told briefly the story of the lame Chero-
kee - whose name in English was George Guess - who became possessed
of the idea of teaching his people to talk on paper like the white
man. He was illiterate when he began his work and did not speak
English, although he evidently understood it. For twelve years,
in between times during his work as a silversmith and mechanic, he
worked on his system, and finally perfected the eighty-six-symbol
Sequoyan syllabary. As a result of his genius and his persistence,
the Cherokee nation, which was already on the way to civilization
in the fertile farmlands of Georgia and the Carolinas, quickly be-
came a literate people.
NEW BOOK ISSUED ON CHEROKEE HISTORY
In "Old Frontiers", by John P. Brown*, long-time student
of the Cherokees, is found a careful history of the Cherokee Nation:
their own stories of their beginnings, their first contacts with De
Soto's expedition, their history during Colonial times and during
the Revolution, their quarrels with other Indians, the events lead-
ing up to the Great Removal and the story of that terrible period-
One brief chapter deals with the ancestors of the present Eastern
Cherokees who escaped from the emigrating parties and fled to the
fastness of the Great Smoky Mountains.
The book includes a short Cherokee vocabulary, appendix
material on land cessions made by the Cherokees and the Treaty of
Sycamore Shoals in 1775, and a bibliography.
* Southern Publishers, Kingsport, Tennessee.
THE AMERICAN INDIAN SIGN LANGUAGE
By John P. Harrington, Smithsonian Institution
(This is the conclusion of Section 2 of an article on the American Indian Sign Language.
Section 1 appeared in the March 1938 issue of "Indians At Work"; the first part of
Section 2 appeared in the July 1938 issue.)
VII. Preparation Mimicry . (The more strikingly mimicked action of preparation
replaces the less strikingly mimicked finished product.
Bread . Strike first flour . Hub back and forth across the palm sid» of
one palm and then the the extended fingers of the left hand with the palm
other into each other side or ball of the thumb of the right hand to mimic
alternately, like patting the action of grinding flour according to the Indian
a cake of dough. ■ B 47. method, the fingers representing the rough understood
or metate, the thumb representing the upperstone,
hand8tone, or mano; then, if one desires; define further
by pointing at something white and then making
the sign for bread.
VIII. Effect Mimicry . The more strikingly mimicked effect or result replaces
the less strikingly mimicked object which produces the effect or result.
Star ; compound of night plus to
twinkle. Nisht. Draw hands, backs up
froa each side and cross them before
the body. H N 6.
To twinkle. Sea above.
Salt , sour , bitter ; compound of to
taste plus bad. To taste: Put extended
index cautiously to mouth. Bad;
Mimic the action of a throwing away
by closing the fist, carrying it to the
right, and opening it.
IX. Stat e Substitution . A finger, e. g. , substitutes for a long object, and
its erect or other self -position for the posture of the object.
To stand .
Jo. lean . Incline hand
with extended index.
X. State mimicry . The posture of the axis of a long object is painted or
substituted for, or the sign us"er's body is made to mimic the posture.
To lie, to.be prone . Paint with
hanging hand from rear forward.
squat . Assume posture
XI.. Counting . The signs captioned under this element are individually capable
of other analysis, but are classified by the sign user himself as having to do with his
"count" - - by which he means his Aathematics.
None , all gone .
Strike backs of
empty hands into
2 or 3 times.
H A 23.
Half , fraction
object, e. g. ,
Half , fraction
H C 35.
then extend right
six . Clench
then extend all
the digits of
the right hand
and the thunb
of the left.
Twenty . Touch tip
of extended right
index to tip of
index of extended
Thumb of left hand
is touched for ten .
index for twenty .
and so forth.
Many , much .
Bring the hands
then arc them
upward and then
All . Turn
then arc sideward,
H A 21.
XII. Relativity . The element of comparison of objects is brought out by
relative position and movement of index tips, by varying the same sign by making it
large and small, and by other means. In the index tip signs, the indexes substitute
for two competitive race runners.
To equal. Chinese
side by side with
tips even, then
move them forward
A little big .
Make the sign for
big ( see above),
by having hands
To exceed , A little big . Big.
Chinese Jargon: Make the sign for See above,
he beat-em. Put
side by side
in such a manner
that the right
tip is thrust
from a position
back of the left
tip to a position
beyond the left
tip, like a
XIII. Bepe tit tonality . Action occurring more than once, or in steps or jerks,
is mimicked by repeating the mimicry or by putting pauses in the route of the mimicry.
This corresponds to verb reduplication in spoken language. Noun collectivity is ex-
pressed in the sign language by various methods, the simplest being plural substitution:
an erect index is a man, plural erect fingers are men - a direct device unattainable in
,-X--X — X
To £0_, to, march . Erect
index, then move hand
forward by steps.
Downward . Gesture down-
ward-turned palm down-
ward by steps. H D 35.
XIV. Characteristic Accompaniment Added . An accompaniment or outline, though
actually mostly absent, is added for distinguishment, as classifiers are added to fun-
damentals in Chinese writing.
Horse , rider , to ride . Straddle
horizontally extended index with
2 fingers of other hand to repre-
sent horse and rider.
If desired, mimic galloping action.
XV. Characteristic Outline For A Whole.
Ridge . Hook index
over upper edge of
House . Place indexes to form
an inverted V,
XVI. Characteristic Part For A Whole,
painted or 'substituted.
Tipl . P3ace indexes to form
an inverted V, tips crossed to show
poles projecting from top of tipl.
A characteristic part for a whore is
Moun tain - sheep , bighorn . Bring hands to
temples, then paint outline of curve of
mountain-sheep's horns. Conpare Irving,
Astoria: "The bighorn is so named from
its horns." (Irving, Astoria,
1855, p. 240.)
Buffalo . Hold hands on head with
erect indexes curved outward and then
inward at the tip to substitute for the
horns of a buffalo.
XVII. Characteristic Action For A Thole . A strikingly mimicked fragment of an
activity represents the entire activity, and connected object.
To snow , enow . Hang extended
hand loosely, then paint sun-
wise circle several revolu-
tions to show swirling,
acti.QB denoting the whole
action of to snow, and snow
H S 37
To pack up. Strike
right pelm on back of
left hand, first on
thumb side, then on
little finger side.
H P 1.
Hatch . Uinic with
adex oh forearm
the striking of a
match, partial action
denoting the whole
action of the match,
XVIJt. Interjections . These are highly conventionalized signs, mostly of origin
now obscure, used in salutation, expression of gratitude, cursing, exclamation, affirma-
tion, negation, and the like. Some of these signs are also used as adverbial particles.
the hand at
Yes . Elevate
thumb and in-
at right of
ing them to-
H T 1.
no . not . Wave
to the right
open right hand,
back turned si de-
ward, hand being
nearly palm up at
end of movement,
that is, make a
to the right.
XIX Adverbial Particles . These are highly conventionalized signs, mostly of
origin now obscure, denoting manner, time, place, interrogation, uncertainty, and the
like. Some adverbial particles of place are the same in the sign language as demonstra-
tive pronouns ( there equals that ) . and the negative particle is the same as the negative
interjection ( not equals noj ).
XX. Sounds . Talk without talk is not entirely silent; oral and non-oral
sounds can be, and are, made a component element of some of the signs. Twenty non-
oral sounds (such as the snapping of the fingers and the clapping of the hands) can
be produced by the human body, aside from a much larger number of oral sounds.
The above analysis is based on what Indian sign users and language speakers
themselves see in the signs. The beautifully executed line drawings presented above
were prepared by Mr. Cecil T. Sandell , taking Indian Sign Talk , 1893 , as the standard
source, but with careful and special posing for many of the signs. In the above
drawings, where the formation of the hand does not change, the path of the movement
is indicated by a broken line, and the end of the movement by an X or by the broken
line outline of the final posture of the hand- Where the formation of the hand
changes during the motion, the broken line outline is replaced by a solid line out-
line, for the reason that a broken line would be inadequate for showing clearly the
changed formation. Signs taken from Hadley are indicated by adding, after giving
the directions for making the sign, the letter H followed by Hadley' s dictionary let-
ter intial and entry number.
LAC DU FLAMBEAU CHIPPSWAS BUILD SUMMER COLONY WITH
INDIAN ^ORGANIZATION LOAN FUNDS
The Lao du Flambeau Indians of Wisconsin, using funds
borrowed from the Indian Reorganization Act's revolving loan fund,
have built a group of attractive summer cabins on Fence Lake, which
lies within the reservation. These cottages, which are equipped
for housekeeping, have four rooms and screened porches. The rental
is $25.00 per week for September and $35.00 per week for August.
These rates include fuel, ice and the use of a boat. Reservations
may be made by writing to the Lac du Flambeau Tribal Council, of
which George Brown is president, at Lac du Flambeau, Wisconsin.
RECANT CHANGES OF ASSIGNMENT
Earl Wooldridge, formerly the Superintendent of the Rocky
Boy 1 3 Agency in Montana is being transferred to the superintendency
of the Grande Ronde-Siletz Agency in Oregon. This agency was former-
ly a part of the Salem School Jurisdiction. Superintendent Emmett
E. McNeilly, formerly the Superintendent of the Western Shoshone
Agency in Nevada, will fill Mr. Wooldridge 's place as the Superin-
tendent of the Rocky Boy's Agency in Montana. Arthur G. Hutton,
Superintendent of the Hopi Agency in Arizona has entered on duty
as Traveling Supervisor for CCC-ID, with headquarters at Oklahoma
City, Oklahoma. Seth Wilson, formerly Principal at Standing Rock,
North Dakota, will take Mr. Hutton 1 8 place as Superintendent of
the Hopi Agency in Arizona.
Claude M. Hirst, who waa formerly Director of Education
for Alaska, has now become General Superintendent for Alaska-
BILLS AFFECTING INDIAN AFFAIRS
ENACTED DURING- THE THIRD SESSION , 75th CONFESS
(Exclusive Of Private Relief Bills)
Note : No bills affecting Indians were enacted during the second
session of the Seventy-Fifth Congress, which lasted from November 15 to Decem-
ber 21, 1937. The third session, whose Indian legislation is noted below,
lasted from January 3 to June 16, 1938.
Title Of Act
S. 558 : Amending acts fixing the rate of pay- Public 433
ment of irrigation construction costs on the Wapato
Indian irrigation project, Yakima, Washington, and
for other purposes.
S. 1945 : To authorize- the Secretary of the In- Public 459 4-4-38
terior to grant concessions on reservoir sites and
other lands in connection with Federal Indian irriga-
tion projects wholly or partly Indian, and to lease
the lands in such reserves for agricultural, grazing
and other purposes.
S. 2163 : To authorize the deposit and invest- Public 714 6-24-38
ment of- Indian funds.
S. 2368 : To provide funds for cooperation
with School District Numbered 2, Mason County,
State of Washington, in the construction of a pub-
lic school building to be available to both white
and Indian children.
S. 2689 : To regule.te the leasing of certain
Indian lands for mining purposes.
2698: To set aside certain lands in Okla- Public 480
homa for the Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians.
H. R . 3162 : Conferring jurisdiction upon the
United States Court of Claims to hear, examine,
adjudicate and render judgment on any and all
claims which the Ute Indians or any Tribe or Band
thereof may have against the United States, and
for other purposes.
S. 3166 : To amend section 2139 of the Re-
vised Statutes, as amended.
S. 5283 : To authorize the Secretary of the
Interior to place certain records of Indian
tribes of Nebraska with the Nebraska State Histor-
ical Society, at Lincoln, Nebraska, under rules
and regulations to be prescribed by him.
S. 3346 : Authorizing the Secretary of the In-
terior to pay salaries and expenses of the chairman,
secretary and interpreter of the Klamath General
Council, members of the Klamath Business Committee
and other committees appointed by said Klamath Gen-
eral Council and official delegates of the Klamath
S. 3415 : To purchase certain private lands
within the Shoshone (Wind River) Indian Reservation-
Public 780 6-29-38
Public 751 6-25-38
Public 674 6-20-38
S. 3426: To authorize an appropriation for re- Public 675 6-20-38
payment to the Middle Rio Grande Conservancy District,
a subdivision of the State of New Mexico, of the
share of the said district's construction and opera-
tion and maintenance costs applicable to certain prop-
erties owned by the United States, situated in Bernal-
illo County, New Mexico, within the exterior boundaries
of the district; to authorize the Secretary of the In-
terior to contract with said district for future opera-
tion and maintenance charges against said lands; to
authorize appropriation for extra construction work
performed by said district for the special benefit of
certain Pueblo Indian lands and to authorize appropria-
tion for construction expenditures benefiting certain
acquired lands of Pueblo Indians of the State of New
S. 3849: Authorizing the Secretary of the Treas- Public 617 6-15-38
ury to transfer on the books of the Treasury Depart-
ment to the credit of the Chippewa Indians of Minneso-
ta the proceeds of a certain judgment erroneously de-
posited in the Treasury of the United States as public
S. 4036 : Relating to the tribal and individual Public 711 6-24-38
affairs of the Osage Indians of Oklahoma.
H. R. 4540 : Authorizing the Red Lake Band Of
Chippewa Indians in the State of Minnesota to file
suit in the Court of Claims, and for other purposes.
H. R. 4544 : To divide the funds of the Chippewa
Indians of Minnesota between the Red Lake Band and
the remainder of the Chippewa Indians of Minnesota,
organized as the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe.
Public 755 6-28-38
Public 632 6-15-38
H. R. 5974 ; To authorize payments in lieu of al- Public 572 6-1-38
lotments to certain Indians of the Klamath Indian Res-
ervation in the State of Oregon, and to regulate in-
heritance of restricted property within the Klamath
H. fl. 7844 ; To amend the Act of Congress entitled Public 728 6-25-38
"An Act to establish an Alaska Game Commission, to pro-
tect game animals, land fur-bearing animals, and birds
in Alaska, and for other purposes", approved January 13,
1925, as amended.
H. R. 7277 ; To amend an Act entitled "An Act to re- Public 474 4-8-38
fer the claims of the Menominee Tribe of Indians to the
Court of Claims with the absolute right of appeal to the
Supreme Court of the United States" , approved September
Public 757 6-28-38
H. R. 7515 5 To authorize the sale of certain lands
of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians, North Carolina.
H. R. 7868 ; To provide for conveying to the State
of North Dakota certain lands within Burleigh County
within that State for public use.
H . R . 8432 ; To provide for a flowage easement on
certain ceded Chippewa Indian lands bordering Lake of
the Woods, Warroad River, and Rainy River, Minnesota,
and for other purposes.
H. R. 8885 ; For the benefit of the Goshute and oth- Public 484 4-13-38
er Indians, and for other purposes.
Public 729 6-25-38
Public 483 4-13-38
H. R. 9358 ; To authorize the withdrawal and res-
vation of small tracts of the public domain in Alaska
for schools, hospitals and other purposes.
Public 569 5-31-38
The following two bills were passed by the Congress but
S. 1478; Conferring jurisdiction on the Court of
Claims to hear and determine the claims of the Choctaw
Indians of the State of Mississippi.
H. R. 5753 : To authorize advance of the amounts
due on delinquent homestead entries on certain Indian
CCC-ID WORK AT SILETZ RESERVATION . WASHINGTON
By Leo F. Walker, In Charge of Construction
der the CCC-ID
program on the
in Washington dur-
ing recent months
has included a
number of activi-
ties which have
improved the ap-
pearance and con-
venience of our
where most of the
Before - This View Shows The Entrance To The held.
Park Before Construction Was Started.
ground, for example, was developed on the wooded hillside near the
council hall and community cannery. Underbrush and dead trees were
removed and a few trees were thinned out. With the timber from the
excess trees, a shelter, benches, tables, steps and railings were
built. The photograph appearing on the following page shows part
of the completed development.
A sanitary water supply for our cannery and picnic grounds
had been a long- felt need. The spring had been neglected; surface
water drained in; and small animals frequently fell into the spring
and were drowned. As a CCC-ID project, a concrete retaining wall
was built around the spring and the ground so sloped that surface
water could not enter. A half -inch mesh wire fence was built around
the spring and sunk well into the ground to prevent rodents from
burrowing their way into the spring.
The fences around the community grounds were repaired,
two cattle guards were built and several gates and turnstiles were
The construction of an attractive overnight cabin has been
another worth-while CCC-ID project. It was a new experience for our
enrollees, and all of
them wanted the chance
t o work on it- The
cabin which is built
of fir logs is 20' by
24' , and has two
rooms • A large cob-
was built by one of
the enrollees and
shrubbery which was
planted around the
cabin adds much to
portant project has
been the improvement
of old trails. They
have become blocked by fallen trees and heavy underbrush, making it prac-
tically impossible to reach the scene of a fire promptly. Several miles
of these trails have been cleared. They are now open and in good con-
dition, not only for pleasure walks through the woods, but for putting
down fires quickly if they should come.
Lfij^3ij^ v *
«' r^^^ l_
After - Tyee Illihee Park When Completed.
Note The Log Cabin In The Foreground.
WASHINGTON OFFICE VISITORS
Visitors in the Washington Office during the past month
have included: Seth Wilson, Superintendent of the Hopi Agency in
Arizona; Alambert E. Robinson, Superintendent of the Pima Agency
in Arizona; Louis Balsam, Field Representative in Charge of the
Consolidated Chippewa Agency in Minnesota; Chester E. Faris, Field
Representative; Miss Louise Wyberg, Assistant Supervisor of Educa-
tion from the United Pueblos in New Mexico; Miss Verna Nori , Teach-
er from United Pueblos; Mr. Elmer J. Carlson, Forest Supervisor
from Consolidated Chippewa in Minnesota-
Accompanying Superintendent Robinson of Pima Agency were
four members of the Pima Tribal Council. They were: Alex Cannon,
Lieutenant-Governor; Francis Patton, Secretary; Dave Johnson; and
Mr. Louis C. Mueller, Chief Special Officer, has also
been a recent visitor in the Washington Office.
KIOWA AGENCY CCC-ID SNROLLSBS PROFIT BY VARIED VOCATIONAL PROGRAM
B7 Donald B. Jones, Assistant Supervisor, CCC-ID Enrollee Program
Last October Superintendent McCown at the Kiowa Agency in
Oklahoma put the problem of recommendations for a recreational and
vocational program for the jurisdiction's CCC-ID enrollees into the
hands of a steering committee of three.* After consultation with
CCC-ID supervisors, William Karty, then a leader on CCC-ID projects,
was recommended to head this work.
The program got under way, with groups of some 80 enroll ees
meeting weekly at the Riverside and Fort Sill schools. Extension
school and CCC-ID personnel served as teachers for such varied sub-
jects as Judging Beef Cattle, Care of Horses and Mules, Feeding
Poultry, Masonry, Health, Homemade Furniture, Safe Driving and Civics.
In February the need for work in smaller groups became ap-
parent ; consequently the work was divided so that part of the in-
struction was given to the group as a whole and part to small classes.
There is now an hour of class instruction and two hours of field work
weekly. Approximately 250 enrollees now attend.
The CCC-ID recreational program has included horseshoe
pitching, boxing, basketball, baseball, softball and tennis. Ath-
letic events have been joined in enthusiastically by enrollees and
Monthly community programs held at Mountain View, Fletcher
and Anadarko, under the sponsorship of Robert Goombi , Edmund Mahseet
and Frank Henry, all Indians, further serve to bring the Indians of
this jurisdiction together for exchange of ideas.
* J. M. Conover, Jr., Project Manager; J. M. Jackson, Principal
Foreman of the CCC-ID; and Scott B. Moore, Extension Agent.
SALT LONG A COMMODITY AMONG INDIANS
Salt deposits not many miles east of Hot Sorings Nation-
al Park, Arkansas, are known to have been worked by the Indians be-
fore the early white settlers used them as a source of their salt.
Numerous fragments of pottery found at these locales in-
dicate the importance of earthen pots in the collecting of this
valuable food substance. Reprinted from the National Park Service
THE REORGANIZATION OF FARM MANAGEMENT IN KANSAS
By P. Everett Sperry, Project Manager, CCC-ID
Potawatomi Agency, Kansas
Today - some three-quarters of a century since the adop-
tion of Kansas into statehood - those of us who are trained to be
sensitive to soil wastage are working to bring about a change in
the traditional policy of farm management and land usaee in Kansas
The depleted condition of the top-soil has made most good farmers
consider their farming methods, and has brought the realization
that we must make natural topographical conditions work for us,
and not against us- The old system of cross-fencing and straight-
plowing, inherited from the first government territorial surveys
and subsequent section surveys, is giving way to a system which
considers natural contours and seeks to use every a.cre to its best
While Indian land in Kansas is a minute fraction of the
State's total area, the participation of Indians in this effort to
save soil is a gratifying indication of Indian interest in conser-
Contour Farming Is Practical
Some farmers are reluctant to adopt contour farming. To
change from a long-established system requires both patience and
planning on the farmer's part. Soil wastage in some sections is
not spectacular enough or rapid enough to alarm individual owners,
who feel that the land, while less fertile than it was, will last
as long as they do.
Many other farmers, however, and among them a large num-
ber of our Indian farmers, are keenly interested in terracing and
contour farming as a means of saving and improving their land, and,
ultimately, to better living. CCC-ID work at Potawatomi has, in
large part, been directed toward developing this type of farm man-
A Brief Discussion Of Terracing Methods
In principle, farming on the contour is the same as farm-
ing land which has been terraced. If our farmers had practiced
Terracing On A Potawatomi Farm. The First
Plowed Furrow Follows The Terrace Contour.
Masonry Water Outlet Plus One Rain Made Pos-
sible This Storage Of Water On A Potawatomi
Farm. In Two Or Three Years This Area Will
Be Filled In With Silt And Will Be The Best
Land On The Farm. Note Two Levels Of Water.
A Kansas Gully. There Are Thousands Of Others,
These Can Be Controlled And The Land Restored.
contour farming from the beginning, when the sod was broken, there
would be less reason for terracing now. Terracing, however, has
a very definite place in our conservation program and the better
the work is done, the more satisfactory will be the results.
In Kansas, our terraces must be constructed high enough
to carry the run-off satisfactorily, and wide enough to permit
heavy farm machinery to pass over them without dragging. This re-
quires an oval-shaped terrace ridge with a minimum height of ap-
proximately eighteen inches and a minimum width of about twenty-
two feet. The width and height of all terrace structures may and
should be increased by regular plowing operations until the desired
condition is attained. We lay out our system with a minimum of
sixty feet and ranging up to approximately two hundred feet between
terraces with a maximum length of two thousand feet. All terraces
are laid out with a variable grade ranging from four-tenths per
hundred feet at the outlet to level in the outer end.
We believe that heavy machinery is more economical and
does a more satisfactory job than light machinery on Indian reser-
vations. On the Potawatomi we are using a Diesel ED 7 - wide-gauge,
wide-tread - Caterpillar and a No. 66 grader with a twelve-foot by
thirty-inch special blade. Most of our Indian land is farmed by
men whose interest is in the production of a maximum cash crop.
These men usually will have little interest in spending time on
maintaining soil-saving structures; consequently it is essential
to build sturdy, lasting structures of sound design. Terracing
could be more cheaply done if our farmery knew and would follow a
regular system of operations designed to carry the run-off water.
We find through actual field experience that they have to be shown
how to farm terraces so as to build them up and avoid their destruc-
We must realize that our program is still in its infancy.
Poorly designed and constructed terracing and contour systems will
be advertised through the community and defeat further expansion
of this valuable farming method. If the work is well done and main-
tained, however, we can expect interest in conservation of the soil
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ISSUES HANDBOOK ON TERRACING-
The Department of Agriculture's bulletin, "Terracing For
Soil and Water Conservation", by C L. Hamilton (Farmers' Bulletin
1789, April 1938), gives specific directions for terrace construc-
tion and farming practice on terraced lands. This bulletin can be
obtained by writing to the U. S • Department of Agriculture , Wash -
ington , D. C.
THE CHEROKEES BEFORE REMOVAL
By John P. Brown
June 1938 commemorates the hundredth anniversary of the
forcible removal of the Cherokee Indians from the land of their
fathers to a new home in the West. It was in June 1838 that the
first band of approximately one thousand unwilling emigrants were
placed on boats at Ross's Landing on the Tennessee River. With
the departure of the Indians, Ross's Landing became a white post
office and later in the year its name was changed to Chattanooga.
Sickness and death were rife among the emigrants; so much
so that the Cherokee National Council petitioned General Winfield
Scott, in charge of the removal, for permission to remove the remain-
ing Cherokees under their own leadership, overland, after the hot
season had abated. The request was granted and during the months
of October and November 1838, thirteen thousand Cherokees turned
their faces westward over the Trail of Tears.
Before leaving the Cherokee National Council met for the
last time in the old homeland and solemnly reaffirmed their title
to the land of their fathers from which they were being forcibly re-
"The free consent of the Cherokee people is in-
dispensable to a valid transfer of the Cherokee title.
The Cherokee people have neither by themselves nor by
their representatives given such consent- It follows
that the original title and ownership of said lands still
rests in the Cherokee Nation unimpaired and absolute. The
Cherokee people have existed as a distinct national com-
munity for a period beyond the dates and records and
memory of man. Their title is the most pure and ancient
and absolute known to man* its date beyond human record
and its validity confirmed by possession. These attri-
butes have never been relinquished by the Cherokee peo-
ple, and cannot be dissolved by the expulsion of the Na-
tion from its own territory by the power of the United
* Mr. John P. Brown is the author of a new book entitled "Old
Frontiers. " The book review appears on page 24 of this issue.
Cherokees Of Iroquoian Stock
The Cherokees have been determined by similarity of speech
to be a branch of the great Iroquoian family of Indians who emigrated
in the twilight period of human history after the Ice Age across
Bering Strait to North America, possibly ten thousand years ago.
It is appropriate that the resolution of the National
Council should specify that the Cherokees had always existed as a
national entity; for the Iroquoian people were skilled in the art
of governing themselves. The Iroquoian Confederacy was probably
•the purest democracy ever known. Dr. Ales Hrdlicka, one of our
greatest scientists, has stated that if the Iroquoian people had
been permitted another hundred years, uninterrupted by European
intervention, they would have dominated the eastern portion of our
country and might have built a better system of government than the
white man has ever achieved. Not, perhaps, one with automobiles,
radios or airplanes, but one more successful in granting to mankind
the rights of life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.
Just when the Cherokees separated from the parent Iroquois
is not known. It is estimated to have been about the thirteenth
century A. D. The separation was probably violent, for throughout
their history the Cherokees warred with the Iroquois- Peace was
not made until white pressure brought a measure of unity to the
various Indian peoples. In 1770, at the Cherokee town of Tuskegee,
on Little Tennessee Eiver, hostilities were finally concluded in a
treaty which was attended as a youth by Sequoyah-
Pushing southward into the mountainous country that was
to become their own, the Cherokees, by their own strength, expelled
the Muskogean or Creek people from the Tennessee Valley; and with
the assistance of the Chickasaws, forced the Shawnees t'o abandon
middle Tennessee and retire across Kentucky to Ohio. This warfare,
like that with the Iroquois, became hereditary from father to Bon,
the established way of winning glory. The last great fight with
the Creeks occurred in 1755 at Taliwa, Georgia, near the present
Canton. Oconostota, at the head of the five hundred Cherokee war-
riors, defeated the Creeks and forced abandonment of the Creek
towns in North Georgia.
First White Contact With DeSoto
The first white contact of the Cherokees was with DeSoto,
who visited their country in 1540. In 1715, they made their first
treaty with the English which was accompanied by a land cession -
ominous portent. In 1730, a group of chiefs visited England and
swore allegiance to King George. Efforts made by the French to de-
tach them proved futile. The Cherokees remained loyal to England,
although there was occasional dissatisfaction, and even warfare for
a time, until after the American Revolution. As America emerged
victorious, the Cherokees, as former allies of the British, were
forced to cede much of their land in Tennessee and North Carolina;
and retired more and more into the abandoned Creek towns of North
At the time of removal, the Cherokees were well-advanced
in civilization. Sequoyah had perfected his alphabet and the Scrip-
tures had been translated into Cherokee. They were a Christianized
and peaceful people. That the removal was cruel, unjust and unneces-
sary, is now recognized. It was dictated by whites 1 selfish desire
for the Cherokee lands and was hastened by the discovery of gold in
1828, within the Cherokee Nation. Thereafter, action moved fast,
culminating in the unjust treaty of removal signed in December 1835-
This treaty was enforced, although it was repudiated by nine-tenths
of the Cherokee people.
Centennial Of Removal To Be Held At Chattanooga
Chattanooga, during the ten days of September 15 to 25 is
celebrating its own centennial and commemorating the hundredth an-
niversary of Cherokee removal- Pilgrimages and the placing of mark-
ers at beloved Indian sites is planned. These include Echota, the
Cherokee capital; the last home of John Ross east of the Mississippi;
the home of Pathkiller; Candy Creek Mission where Reverend Stephen
Foreman was educated; and the home of Dragging Canoe, the war chief
of the Cherokees. It is hoped that Cherokees, both of the East and
West, will participate as guests of Chattanooga.
SUGGESTED BOOK LIST FOR INDIAN SCHOOLS
The Education Division has issued,, in attractive format,
a list of suggested books for Indian schools- The list is divided
into three principal sections: books for the younger pupil3, through
the sixth grade; books for older p^ils, through the high school;
books for adults - teachers, advisers, principals, social workers,
etc There is also a brief section on encyclopedias, dictionaries
and atlases; and one on magazines and newspapers. Each reference
is followed by concise bibliographical data and by a brief comment.
The booklet was printed as a student project at Haskell
Institute and may be obtained by. mailing a check or money order for
fifteen cents to Haskell Institute at Lawrence, Kansas.
N0TL5 PfcOM WLCKLY PROGSC33 tt£P0*T3 OF
CIVILIAN CONSERVATION CORN ~ INDIAN DIVISION
New Plan For Fire Duty At Navajo
( Chin Lee - Arizona ) We have a plan
here for holding twenty men in camp
for fire duties over the week-ends.
These men are subject to any fire
calls. The detail is alternated ev-
ery week, thus giving each man in
camp a responsibility over week-ends.
This plan will continue until the
rainy season sets in.
About 90$ of the enrollees are
taking part in athletics. It sure
looks good to see them on the ath-
letic field after working hours. Ev-
ery evening we have a number of
spectators from all around observing
the different games. Our baseball
team is coming along just fine. So
far, all our games have been victor-
ies. We are mighty proud to have a
record team in camp. This week we
are playing the " Gallup Miners" at
Gallup. W. B. Lorentino , Leader .
Well Digging At Sells ( Arizona )
Project #18, DW-39: Good progress
was made this week and the well is
now 138 feet deep. Water was en-
countered at 78 feet but only tested
about 3 gallons per minute. An ad-
ditional water vein was struck at
105 feet which apparently will amount
to considerable production, and since
our present bailer equipment cannot
test in excess of 30 gallons per min-
ute, pump column and cylinder will
have to be set before satisfactory
test can be determined. Harris H.
Irrigation Work At Northern
Idaho ( Idaho ) The work out here
is moving along very well. There
were some real hot days which slowed
up the work a little. We ran into
some trouble with our dams in the
Soldier's Irrigation ditch; the
squirrels and pocket gophers dug
holes around them and allowed the
water to seep through so that the
dirt around the retaining walls was
washed away. Harold R. Wing.
Truck Trail Construction At
Seminole ( Florida ) Owing to a de-
crease in rainfall it was believed
advisable to use every available
man and the two trucks to finish
the stretch of trail leading south-
west from headquarters for an ap-
proximate distance of one-quarter
mile. This trail was recently
graded in part by our workers and
a right-of-way was cut through the
cypress. This was 100 feet in
All traffic had to pass to one
side of the grade; consequently the
going was bad. In fact, it was al-
most impossible to pass. Now we
have the new grade opened and the
new bridge is in.- W. Stanley Han -
son , Mechanic -.
Classes On Range Grasses Being
Held At Carson ( Nevada ) Miss Edith
V. A. Murphy has been doing some
preliminary work before starting
classes in range grasses and poison
weeds. She has made quite a collec-
tion of wild grasses from this lo-
cality. She is very anxious to
have all the men interested in cat-
tle or sheep raising become acquaint-
ed with the various forage grasses
as well as the poison weeds which
will kill livestock,
Frank M. Parch-
Telephone Maintenance At Kla -
math (Oregon) Telephone lines have
"been placed in proper working order
in all the lookouts except those
at Swan Leke and Tamsey Mountains.
Considerable work was necessary on
telephone maintenance this spring,
due to the great number of snags
which had fallen across the lines
during the winter months. W. R.
Work On The Yavapai Truck Trail
Completed At Truxton Canon ( Arizona )
This week saw the completion of this
project which was a truck trail from
the center of this small Yavapai
Reservation to a recently completed
well with windmill and storage tank.
This reservation is 132 miles re-
moved from the main agency and prop-
er supervision was difficult. But
in spite of all this, these people
did a fine job on this truck trail
and especially so when one considers
that the only equipment used was
man-power, picks, shovels and wheel
barrows. Ross Carman , Project Man -
grasshopper Control at Fort
Tot ten ( North Dakota ) Sixty 50-
gallon barrels of liquid arsenite
were received during the past week
to be used for our grasshopper con-
trol project. About twenty crews
have been arranged to spread grass-
hopper poison in the various vicin-
One grasshopper machine, which
was built to the specifications of
the North Dakota Agricultural College
plans, is to be pulled behind a truck
by one crew which will cover the
major fields which happen to be on
level territory. The other crews
consist of three men to each unit.
These crews will spread poison by
hand in the rough parts of the res-
ervation. Warm weather prevailed
during the last week. This type of
weather hatches grasshoppers.
Poisoning the affected areas
is necessary right now, and we will
put forth every effort to cover as
much territory and kill as many
grasshoppers as possible. Christian
A. Ruber , Junior Engineer .
Blister Rust Control At Keshena
( Wisconsin ) Blister rust crews here
spent a good day with the State
blister rust official. First the
entire crew was taken into the field
where they were shown just how blis-
ter rust fungus operates on white
pine and several phases of infection.
After the field trip the boys were
shown several short movies on blis-
ter rust crews at work and other
educational pictures relating to
forest work- Walter Ridlington ,
Project Manager .
Picnic ground Development - O n
The Fence Lake Thoroughfare At great
Lake s ( Wisconsin ) This project in-
volves the clearing and grubbing of
approximately three acres of heavily-
wooded second growth, situated on
the bank of Fence Lake and bounded
on the northwest by the Fence Lake-
Crawling Stone Lake thoroughfare
and served by a CCC truck trail.
At this time 6 tables, 5 fire-
places, 2 incinerators and 2 latrines
have been placed. The parking lota
have had a covering of cinders and
the guard rail is about finished.
Upon completion, it will be one of
seventeen picnic grounds or camp
sites which have been constructed
by Unit A on this reservation. With
the large influx of tourists in this
vicinity during the summer months,
their value in concentrating camp
fires in suitable locations appears
to have more than justified their
cost when one compares past and
present fire-fighting costs. Ben
C. Gauthier .
Small Fire Extinguished At Tu -
lalip ( Washington ) One small beach
fire was extinguished by CCC-ID en-
rollees with the assistance of the
County Fire Warden. Theodore Lozeau ,
Forest Ranger .
Fire Control At Fort Belknap
( Montana ) The lookout man will be
placed at the lookout station with-
in the next few days , as the fire
season will then be at its peak.
The guards will be put on at a later
date. The recent rains we have been
having have been of great help in
fire prevention and the continuation
of these rains should help us go
through another season without any
serious fires. H arold Helgeson ,
Manager , CCC-ID .
Work At Cherokee ( North Carolina )
We have practically all the crew
working on sloping banks and clear-
ing off rock on Project #115. A
crew of four men are shooting stumps
ahead of the trail builder. We have
one man on Project #105 who is cutting
overhanging limbs from the telephone
line. Roy Bradley , Group Foreman .
Activities At Potawatomi ( Kan -
sas ) The Kickapoo boys are complet-
ing the terraces and masonry baffles
on the Stella Menahquah 80 acres.
Tom Herrick, Kickapoo, has agreed to
summer fallow this terraced field
and have the field ready for wheat
at wheat-sowing time. P. Everett
Fence Maintenanc e At Choctaw -
Chic kasaw Sanator ium ( Oklahoma )
Work on fence maintenance at the
Sanatorium Reserve has been progress-
ing nicely. Considerable timber
that had been blown down across the
fences by recent storms has been
removed. Broken wire was replaced
and repaired and numerous posts
were replaced. It is believed that
within another week we will have
these fences in very good condition.
Tony Winlock , Leader CCC-ID .
Work At Sells ( Arizona ) Proj -
ect #1 - San Xavier: The crew has
been working very smoothly. The
open joint concrete pipe in the in-
filtration portion of the gallery
has been progressing at a satisfac-
tory rate. It is hoped that we will
be able to increase the speed of
]aying so as to get the gallery com-
pleted before the rainy season starts.
William J. Wagner .
Spring Development At Fort
Peck ( Montana ) Some time has been
spent on Spring #140 and Spring #
224, as they both proved to be of
the seepy type which required more
work than we anticipated. After
these springs were opened, a large
flow of water was hit. This
flooded about 100 acres of land.
It was necessary to dig drain ditches,
lay in a culvert and built a trail
The results proved very good.
James McDonald , Sub-Foreman .
Horse Trail Maintenance At Con -
solidated Ute ( Colorado ) Trail main-
tenance on Ute Mountain has gone for-
ward steadily. Several rock points
were blasted to make the trail wider.
Part of the crew was busy rock pav-
ing dips. A. L. Jekyll , Foreman.